Wednesday, October 13, 2010

TKAM - Period 1

Hello, and welcome to my blog! We'll use this forum throughout the year as a way to encourage discussion between all students, leaving behind the boundaries and borders of the traditional classroom: hopefully this blog will bring together students from a variety of background experiences, personalities, thought processes, etc.

THE OBJECTIVE
For our first assignment, we're going to create a virtual database. Each student will research a topic related to the time period and/or content of Harper Lee's novel, synthesize the information, and report in the form of a blog response. By the time we are done, we will have created a veritable research library of our own. Anyone interested in studying the important people, places, and events related to TKAM need look no further than our own blog!

THE RESOURCES
Using the credible resources available through the library's website (NOT GOOGLE!!!), each student will consult at least two sources to gather information on the assigned topic. Once gathered, the students will synthesize the information and respond through a blog post.

A link to the library's website is provided here:
http://library.springbranchisd.com/library-resources/

A link to the passwords is located here: (Shhhh! It's a secret...)


THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE RESPONSE:
Your responses must include the following:

1. A basic identification of the subject that answers the journalistic questions of "who, what, where, when, why, and how."

2. A more complex explanation that includes the significance of this particular person, place, or event. For example:



  • Why does this topic remain important after all of these years?
  • What is the ongoing effect or relevance of this topic?
  • What trends, patterns, or themes of the time period are reflected in this topic? (Injustice, Innovation, Peaceful Resistance, etc.)
  • How does this topic relate to the novel?

3. Internal citations that identify the two sources from which you gathered your information. For example, you might include a sentence like "According to Facts on File, Medgar Evers fought for...". A works cited page is not required to document these sources, though.

4. A reflection of Advanced Placement work, not simply getting by with the least amount of work possible but striving to give the best and most thorough explanations possible. Responses should be at least 8 sentences long, but they certainly may be longer in order to provide ample information on the topic. According to our usual practices, responses must be written in complete sentences with correct use of spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Note: Students may want to compose their responses in a word processing document, then cut and paste the completed writing into the response window.

5. Students should respond to their individual class period's post. Also, each student should sign his or her post with first name, last initial and class period; for example: Susan K, Period 1.

THE DUE DATE

Posts must be added by the time your come to school on Wednesday, October 20. This assignment counts as a quiz grade.

35 comments:

Anonymous said...

Civil rights act of 1964
According to Ebsco.com, the day of June 2, 1964 changed the face of America forever. It changed America because on that day, the civil rights act of 1964 was signed by Lyndon b. Johnson in the oval office. all Americans regardless of race, color, religion or national origin “It opened all public accommodations--hotels, restaurants, swimming pool, and much more.” It also gave all U.S. citizens the right to vote.
According to Abcclio.com, the civil rights act of 1964 was en forced because of segregation, and limited voting rights. Many people helped come up with additions to the act, but the most noted was the banning of sex discrimination. This was added by Representative Howard smith of Virginia. The banning of sex discrimination meant both males and females had equal rights to job employment, voting, and many other opportunities.
This act has carried on to today, and affects our lives daily. Had this act not been passed, we wouldn’t have all of the talented musicians, athletes, authors, etc. discovered. We wouldn’t even have barrack Obama as our president. Also, this act being passed show that everybody is equal. It shows that just because u are a certain race or gender that you are superior to one another.
This relates to To Kill a Mocking Bird in that the novel is in an era of racial and gender tension. Not everybody has equal rights, which has an effect on the setting.

riley k, period 1

Anonymous said...

Medgar Evers

According to Medgar Evers on ABC CLIO, Medgar Evers was born on July 2, 1925 in Decatur, Mississippi. From this humble beginning, a legend emerged. Evers was denied entrance into the University of Mississippi law school because of his race. Instead of giving up on life, he tried even harder to gain rights for blacks. In 1954, he was given the title of state field secretary for the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). Evers believed in equal rights for all, and would not stop fighting until that goal was achieved. According to Medgar Wiley Evers on Encyclopedia Britannica, Medgar Evers was killed on the very same day that JFK made a broadcast to the nation about civil rights. He was shot in front of his house because of his beliefs.
Medgar Evers made a lasting impact on the nation by greatly influencing the Civil Rights Movement. He encouraged non-violent ways of promoting civil rights, and changed the face of this nation forever. Evers will always be remembered as a martyr to the cause of equal rights for all.

Stephen Snow, Period 1

Anonymous said...

Cornelius Vanderbilt

According to the article, “Cornelius Vanderbilt” within the ABC-CLIO category of Memorial High School Library website, Cornelius Vanderbilt built different vehicles for transportation vital to the industry during America's late 19th century.

The steamboat had a great impact on his life. In 1818, Vanderbilt persuaded Thomas Gibbons to construct a big steamboat called the “Bellona”. With the Bellona, they challenged a New York law that had started a monopoly for Robert Fulton (a great inventor) when it forbade steamboats from other states.

In 1829, Cornelius chose to depart from Thomas Gibbons. He continued to improve the steamboats, making their speed more rapid and more comfortable for passengers. By the mid-1840s, he received $1 million, and publicity gave him a famous nickname, “Commodore Vanderbilt”.

During the Civil War, he built free war ships for the federal government. However, commanders whined about the vessels' lousy quality. Vanderbilt underwent personal disasters during the war when his youngest, beloved son named George was murdered.

In 1862, almost 70 years of age, Vanderbilt sold his steamboats and decided to create railroads. He bought supplies in the New York & Harlem Railroad. By 1867, he took it over. He additionally earned control of the Hudson River Railroad and the New York Central Railroad.

Vanderbilt’s hard work paid off, as he ended up a millionaire. The unorganized industry of the 19th century was very much improved because of Vanderbilt’s brilliant, efficient ideas.

- Chelsea W, Period 1

Anonymous said...

Labor unions, also known as trade unions, are organizations where workers strive to attain higher quality working conditions. Various labor movements stem from the injustice of employers and political governments. One of the greatest labor movements was made in the late 19th century, a time period when people worked under grueling conditions for little pay.

During the time setting of To Kill a Mockingbird, the 1930s, the labor movement reached a great peak. Employers were continuously replacing their workers, which led to the workers forming unions. Unions were formed because the power of the groups would often times overrule the power of the employer.

Due to opposing views, labor unions still remain an important topic throughout the years. According to the Points of View Reference Center on www.ebscohost.com, Terri McFadden and Geraldine Wagner believe that having labor unions “is a key ingredient in preserving democracy in the 21st century world of global economies and politics.” Also the article “Workers' Rights” from ABC-CLIO states that due to labor unions, employees now work in safer and more lenient environments. However, others deem labor unions as being corrupt and damaging to the economy.

Although labor unions aren't as prevalent today, many employees who work in construction and factories are members in unions. Even though the unions have solved the issues of earning higher wages and more comfortable working conditions, some argue that labor unions possess too much power and control.

Michelle O, Period 1

Anonymous said...

The Works Project Administration (WPA) was one of the main programs in President Franklin D. Roosevelt's new deal. Created and authorized in 1935, the WPA was created with the intention of providing work and to preserve the skills in which people had learned in their previous jobs that they had lost. This was a way to develop and/or maintain their self-esteem. According to ABC-CLIO's article Works Project Administration, "During the program's eight years, its workers built 78,000 bridges, 116,000 buildings, and 651,000 miles of public roads." Clearly, these workers were very dedicated to their work and took pride in the jobs in which they had. In reference to Britannica Online's article also called Works Project Administration (WPA), "Although the Great Depression severely hurt the people of America, the economy stimulated by the purchasing power of the newly employed, whose wages under the program ranged from 15 to 90 dollars every month. 8.5 million people were put to work over the organizations 8 year span, and WPA was in fact one of the most important factors in helping aid and guide America during the Great Depression. It is estimated that during the period of time in which WPA was a organization, the US government spent a total of 11 billion dollars to pay the salary of the workers. Finally in 1943, due to the decrease in unemployment, the WPA was terminated.

Jonathan R. Period 1

Anonymous said...

According to files in Freedom Rides on ABC-Clio,” the 1961 freedom riders were a series of organized interstate bus rides meant to confront discriminatory Jim Crow Law found in the southern states. They were made up of students and veteran civil rights activists.”

The 1961 freedom riders were important because they helped to stop the Jim Crow Laws. According to, The Jim Crow Law, on ABC-Clio, the Jim Crow Law were laws that segregated all public facilities like schools, busses, water fountains and etc into white and black areas. The freedom riders made congress overturn these laws and stop segregation in all public facilities.

In 1961 racism was still an important issue in the life and politics of U.S citizens especially in the southern states. This was the time period in which Martian Luther King was still fighting for equality and racial justice between blacks and whites. The freedom riders overturning the Jim Crow Laws was a very important step for blacks in the road towards racial equality.

This applies to, To kill a Mockingbird, because the story takes place in the south during the era of racial discrimination. One of the freedom bus rides went through Alabama which is the state To kill a Mockingbird takes place. In Alabama the bus riders were met by the KKK (klu Klux Klan) who were very violent towards the bus riders.

Shallom O, period 1

Anonymous said...

Rosa Parks
According to the Literary Research Center on EBSCO.com, Rosa Parks was born on February 4th, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama and died October 24th, 2005 of an illness in her Detroit home. She was a civil rights activist herself and a cultural icon for other activists. She is greatly renowned for her defiance on a segregated Montgomery city bus on December 1st, 1955.
Parks remains important after all these years because of that one peaceful defiance. According to the American History section of ABC CLIO, Parks and three other African Americans were sitting in the last row of the bus, and were asked to move to make room for a white person who had nowhere to sit. While the three other African Americans left, she refused. She was arrested promptly and taken to jail. This sparked the movements of civil rights activists around the country, including a boycott that lasted 381 days and significantly impacted Montgomery’s economy and gained nationwide media attention.
This act had a huge effect because when the Montgomery Improvement Association filed suit in the U.S. District Court challenging bus segregation, the district ruled in favor of the Association and this set the foundation for ending segregation everywhere.
Trends dealing with Rosa Parks are peaceful defiance, because no matter what Parks did, she never used violence.Rosa Parks has to do with To Kill A Mockingbird because the novel is set in a time period where discrimination and segregation are at their highest, around the same time Rosa Parks defied the rules against it. The book is mainly about a case against an African American man and this creates the same themes of racism and civil justice as Rosa Parks’ act.
Fatema S., Period 1

Anonymous said...

The Montgomery bus boycott was the first major event of the modern civil rights era. According to ABC CLIO, “Rosa Parks, whose refusal to give up her bus seat to a white passenger sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott.”

The Montgomery bus boycott lasted from December 5, 1955 to December 21, 1956, when the Montgomery, Alabama city bus lines were forced to integrate. The bus boycott was instituted by the Montgomery improvement Association (MIA for short), which called for the action after Rosa Parks who was an African-American seamstress, who was arrested for refusing to give her seat to a white passenger on December 1, 1955. When Martin Luther King Jr. and other members of the MIA heard what Rosa Parks did they were pleasantly surprised that patrons of the bus system were willing to inconvenience themselves in order to back the bus boycott. Many white people joined the bus boycott, as well as many black people.
As many weeks go by, the city bus system looses more and more people to the bus boycott. Soon enough they decide that they are loosing too much money, so the bus owners met some of the MIA's demands. Some of the demands are: African-American bus drivers would be provided on routes where African Americans were prevalent, and also the bus drivers could not call the African Americans mean names anymore. Those gestures were a start, but the MIA refused to end the boycott.

According to Encyclopedia Britannica, the MIA leaders were able to sustain the boycott until November 1956, when the NAACP won a Supreme Court order to desegregate the bus system.That is when the bus boycott ended.

Hannah Haest p.1

Anonymous said...

Dewey Decimal System


According to Dewey Decimal Classification, (which is an article that can be found on Encyclopedia Britannica) the Dewey Decimal Classification, also known as the Dewey Decimal System, is a system that organizes the contents of a library into 10 main groups, each group consisting of 100 numbers. The 10 groups are: General Works:0-99, Philosophy/Psychology:100-199, Religion:200-299, Social Sciences:300-399, Language:400-499, Natural Sciences and Mathematics:500-599, Technology:600-699, Arts:700-799, Literature and Rhetoric:800-9-899, History, Biography, and Geography:900-999. According to the Youtube video How to Understand the Dewey Decimal System which was posted by howcast.com, the 10 main groups are subdivided into smaller groups such as the 750's which is Painting, which are subdivided into even smaller groups such as 759 which is Historical Paintings, which are subdivided again into groups such as 759.11 which is Canadian Historical Paintings. It was created because libraries were often unorganized, and people were forced to wander aimlessly to find the book they were seeking.It was crated by Melvin Dewey in 1873. (Fun Fact: He preferred to spell his last name "Dui")

Sense it's creation is has become a library phenomenon. The Dewey Decimal System is not an out of date system, it is still used today. Libraries still use it to organize their shelves. People do not rely on it as much as they did in the time period of To Kill a Mockingbird, but it is still used to find books. People type the title of the book they are looking for into a computer and the computer gives the call number of the book. The call number of the book is the number assigned to it under the Dewey Decimal System and the name of the author. The person then goes the correct section to find the book. In the time period of To Kill a Mockingbird, the Dewey Decimal System was the only way for people to find books in libraries besides wandering around aimlessly.

Michael Caplan:Period 2

Anonymous said...

According to an article under American History at ABC-CLIO, on October 29, 1929 the New York Stock Exchange had crashed and was only a symptom rather than a cause of the great depression. The article also states that the depression resulted in overextension in credit and spending through the 1920s .Nonetheless, the stock market crashed which shuck the United States confidence. The crash brought loans the United States had extended to European Countries, Which were still recovering from World War I. Soon Latin American and Asian countries, organized around primary products to the industrial market of the North Atlantic world, quickly collapsed in response to their markets. According article under American Government at ABC-CLIO, the great depression was the most dramatic economic event in United States history. During the 12 years of the depression in the United States, one –quarter of the work force was unemployed, 5,500 banks closed, and 32,000 businesses went bankrupt.
The United States government created a system called the “New Deal” which is a series of programs which will keep the country stable. This topic is still huge because the United States is in War and are in dept in this era. The topic is important to the book because scout, always talks about where people in her neighborhood are in class.
Dante M, Period 1

Anonymous said...

Medgar Evers

According to Medgar Evers on ABC CLIO, Medgar Evers was born on July 2, 1925 in Decatur, Mississippi. From this humble beginning, a legend emerged. Evers was denied entrance into the University of Mississippi law school because of his race. Instead of giving up on life, he tried even harder to gain rights for blacks. In 1954, he was given the title of state field secretary for the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). Evers believed in equal rights for all, and would not stop fighting until that goal was achieved. According to Medgar Wiley Evers on Encyclopedia Britannica, Medgar Evers was killed on the very same day that JFK made a broadcast to the nation about civil rights. He was shot in front of his house because of his beliefs.

In the book, To Kill a Mockingbird, the town seems to be segregated. Medgar Evers was on a mission to change that. If he went to that town in the present day, he would probably be very pleased with its progress. Because in large part to him, segregation hardly exists anymore.

Medgar Evers made a lasting impact on the nation by greatly influencing the Civil Rights Movement. He encouraged non-violent ways of promoting civil rights, and changed the face of this nation forever. Evers will always be remembered as a martyr to the cause of equal rights for all. He sacrificed his life for this cause, and it will not be forgotten.

Stephen Snow, Period 1

Anonymous said...

Education in the 19930’s

Before the Great Depression, public education was a growing importance. When the depression hit, however, many people no longer considered education a major priority. According to an article found on ABC CLIO, many businessmen had loaned large amounts of money to educate the new generations, but when the market crashed, they changed their minds. They no longer would accept taxes that helped paid for schools, and wanted the money they had loaned to schools back. Without any other options, the school board had to comply, and in the process, many teachers were fired, or had their pay cut. This cut off any learning to the students. As stated by EBSCO, there were two hundred thousand unemployed teachers, 2.2 million children out of school, and two thousand rural schools in twenty four different states were unable to open, all by 1933.

The drop of the quality of education now enables us to see that no matter what; education is always a top priority. Without a good education, we cannot build a good platform for the rest of our lives. It can be noted that when the economy is affected, so is everything else, including education. Americans today don’t fully appreciate the opportunities they have, such as free public education, but we should remember that not so long ago, we were wishing for it.
This topic is relevant to the novel because now the reader can fully understand the place where the characters must attend every day. The schools had one teacher for every grade, and that teacher had to meet the needs every student. Odds are, the teacher couldn’t so therefore, the education of all the students in that class may not have been the best. This would have affected the students later on in life, affecting their job, how much money they will make, and how they will live.

If we compare education then to education now, we are able to see great improvement in teaching methods, education technology, and the general quality of education.

Anonymous said...

Education in the 19930’s
Before the Great Depression, public education was a growing importance. When the depression hit, however, many people no longer considered education a major priority. According to an article found on ABC CLIO, many businessmen had loaned large amounts of money to educate the new generations, but when the market crashed, they changed their minds. They no longer would accept taxes that helped paid for schools, and wanted the money they had loaned to schools back. Without any other options, the school board had to comply, and in the process, many teachers were fired, or had their pay cut. This cut off any learning to the students. As stated by EBSCO, there were two hundred thousand unemployed teachers, 2.2 million children out of school, and two thousand rural schools in twenty four different states were unable to open, all by 1933.

The drop of the quality of education now enables us to see that no matter what; education is always a top priority. Without a good education, we cannot build a good platform for the rest of our lives. It can be noted that when the economy is affected, so is everything else, including education. Americans today don’t fully appreciate the opportunities they have, such as free public education, but we should remember that not so long ago, we were wishing for it.

This topic is relevant to the novel because now the reader can fully understand the place where the characters must attend every day. The schools had one teacher for every grade, and that teacher had to meet the needs every student. Odds are, the teacher couldn’t so therefore, the education of all the students in that class may not have been the best. This would have affected the students later on in life, affecting their job, how much money they will make, and how they will live.

If we compare education then to education now, we are able to see great improvement in teaching methods, education technology, and the general quality of education.


Amanda P, Period 1

Anonymous said...

According to Abc – Clio American Histroy, “The Fifteenth Amendment was adopted by the U.S. Congress on February 26, 1869 to protect the voting rights of African-American men. The requisite number of states quickly followed suit, and the amendment was officially ratified on March 30, 1870.” African American men could now vote for who they wanted to be in office. According to encyclopedia Britannica online, “The right to vote could not be denied based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The amendment complemented and followed in the wake of the passage of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth amendments, which abolished slavery and guaranteed citizenship, respectively, to African Americans.”Although this was a big step forward for the country, many people did not approve of it especially in the southern states and they formed groups and rules to try to prevent African Americans from voting. This was a very important amendment because it gave ALL men the right to vote not just some of them, and it gave a true reflection of who the people wanted to lead the country not just who the white population wanted. This amendment is related to To Kill a Mocking Bird because the story takes place in the south during a time when racial tensions were high and many people did not like African Americans.

Henry S, Period 1

Anonymous said...

Sharecropping in the early parts of the 1900’s was the cause of slavery being outlawed in the United States. Sharecropping occurred in the southern states where former slave masters still owned plantations, but did not have any slaves to work on the plantations. Sharecropping is a form of work like slavery except for the working sharecroppers pay there rent by working for a person who owns land. The working sharecroppers are made to work for the person until he or she had paid off there debt. This was a problem because most of the time the workers never were able to pay off their debt. According to ABC CLIO American history, “Although slavery was outlawed by the Thirteenth Amendment in 1863, the systems of sharecropping and Jim Crow laws kept many African Americans virtually enslaved for more than 50 years after the Civil War.” The sharecropping system was usually ineffective for the workers, but served as a helpful way for slave owners to keep their slaves working on their plantations.
Sharecropping is important in history because even though slavery was outlawed, Sharecropping put the former slaves in an amount on debt so great that they would never be able to leave the plantations. According to encyclopedia Britannica, sharecropping is a way for people to pay back debts to a person. This relates to the story because Mr. Cunningham had to pay back Atticus by sharecropping. Mr. Cunningham chopped wood and picked plants to repay Atticus for his debts.Sharecropping has not ended but is very scarce now. The fall of sharecropping was about in the mid-twentieth century when most of the sharecropping worker went north into more of the big cities for better work.

David H, period 1

Anonymous said...

Civil rights act of 1964
According to Ebsco.com in the American history section, the day of June 2, 1964 changed the face of America forever. It changed America because on that day, the civil rights act of 1964 was signed by Lyndon b. Johnson in the oval office. to all Americans regardless of race, color, religion or national origin, “It opened all public accommodations--hotels, restaurants, swimming pool, and much more.” It also gave all U.S. citizens the right to vote.
According to Abcclio.com, the civil rights act of 1964 was en forced because of segregation, and limited voting rights. Many people helped come up with additions to the act, but the most noted was the banning of sex discrimination. This was added by Representative Howard smith of Virginia. The banning of sex discrimination meant both males and females had equal rights to job employment, voting, and many other opportunities.
This act has carried on to today, and affects our lives daily. Had this act not been passed, we wouldn’t have all of the talented musicians, athletes, authors, etc. discovered. We wouldn’t even have barrack Obama as our president. Also, this act being passed show that everybody is equal. It shows that just because u are a certain race or gender that you aren’t superior to one another.
This relates to To Kill a Mocking Bird in that the novel is in an era of racial and gender tension. Not everybody has equal rights, which has an effect on the setting.

Anonymous said...

Civil rights act of 1964
According to Ebsco.com in the American history section, the day of June 2, 1964 changed the face of America forever. It changed America because on that day, the civil rights act of 1964 was signed by Lyndon b. Johnson in the oval office. to all Americans regardless of race, color, religion or national origin, “It opened all public accommodations--hotels, restaurants, swimming pool, and much more.” It also gave all U.S. citizens the right to vote.
According to Abcclio.com, the civil rights act of 1964 was en forced because of segregation, and limited voting rights. Many people helped come up with additions to the act, but the most noted was the banning of sex discrimination. This was added by Representative Howard smith of Virginia. The banning of sex discrimination meant both males and females had equal rights to job employment, voting, and many other opportunities.
This act has carried on to today, and affects our lives daily. Had this act not been passed, we wouldn’t have all of the talented musicians, athletes, authors, etc. discovered. We wouldn’t even have barrack Obama as our president. Also, this act being passed show that everybody is equal. It shows that just because u are a certain race or gender that you aren’t superior to one another.
This relates to To Kill a Mocking Bird in that the novel is in an era of racial and gender tension. Not everybody has equal rights, which has an effect on the setting.

riley k, period 1

Anonymous said...

50th Anniversary of a Classic

2010 marks the 50th anniversary of "To kill a mockingbird". According to EBSCO'S Points of View, the book won the Pulitzer Prize. The book became much more than the average book as it is considered one of the greatest American books of all time and even to this day, English classes still read it and discuss why it is so important and so profound.
The book is set in a small town in Alabama and focuses on a few main topics such as racism and the Great Depression. It is hailed by critics to be one of the best American books and one of the most impact ones. According to EBSCO'S Points of View, the book has sold more than 30 million copies.
The book remains important after all these years because it deals with the harsh and wrongful trends of that time such as racism in America and because of its deception of life during the Great Depression. The effect of "To kill a mockingbird" is that life in America hasn’t always been that great such as the mistreatment and racism blacks received and the Great Depression and that even though both of those things were going on, people can still do great things even if its against what the majority of Americans are doing such as what Atticus did in defending a black man. The injustice of African Americans relates to the novel because Atticus defends a black man and most white lawyers wouldn’t do that because of his skin color and the Great Depression relates to the novel because a lot of the people are struggling in Maycomb, the town they live in.


John Perry Period 1

Anonymous said...

According to american history on abc-clio Emmett Till, a fourteen year old african-american boy who was born on July 25, 1941, and raised on Chicago's South Side was visiting Mississippi to visit his cousin's relatives. A man named Roy Bryant and his brother-in-law were looking for african-americans to torture and stumbled upon Emmett.
They captured him in a car, tortured him, yet Emmett refused to beg for his mercy. The two ended up shooting him in the head and dumped him in the Tallahatchie River. The murder became known across the nation shocking many americans. The trial for the two men had all caucasian's on the jury and the verdict fueled the nascent civil rights revolution. This affected the whole nation and shook the south.
Emmett Till's death is important for To Kill A Mockingbird because the book is during a time of extreme racism and this example shows the way the nation was back in the mid 1900's. The world has come a long way as now in the modern world, that would be extremely unacceptable, but back then it wasn't nearly as a big deal

Kasey C, Period 1

Anonymous said...

Brown vs. Board of Education
In Brown vs. Board of Education, the “separate but equal” doctrine set forth by Plessy vs. Ferguson was overturned. Brown, the plaintiff, sued the Board of Education of Topeka. After it refused to allow Brown admittance into Sumner Elementary, a white school. According to ABC-CLIO, Brown vs. Board of Education was actually 2 different appeals. The first appeal was to overturn segregation and the second appeal was to argue the implantation of the desegregation. The Supreme Court voted 9-0 in both cases in favor of the plaintiff, Brown. Then in the opinion written on the second Brown vs. Board of Education said that the integration of schools should move forward with all deliberate speed says Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
These court cases shook the foundation of the United States in the 1950s. It began a two decade struggle for equal rights for all Americans and ended segregation. Desegregation of schools started rapidly in the North, but it was slow to occur in the South. It was not until 1960 when Dwight D. Eisenhower sent soldiers to force school to integrate. Also resulting from this case, people tried to take away power from the Supreme Court so they could reverse the ruling on Brown vs. Board of Education.
Harper Lee would have been influenced by the case, because she would have been inspired by efforts for equality. Her character, Tom Robinson, is the embodiment of the struggle for racial equality. Atticus is the embodiment of everyone that helped. This case would have been a big influence on her writing.
Steve S. Period 1

Anonymous said...

Hoovervilles

Beginning in October 1929, the United States faced massive troubles in their economy. According to World History: The Modern Era on ABC-CLIO, the Great Depression, compelled by a stock market crash, left many people unemployed. Because of this diffusion of poverty, many men and women were forced to live in tin shantytowns called Hoovervilles. These homeless people named the colonies of makeshift shacks Hoovervilles after President Herbert Hoover. They blamed him for failing to notice the economies’ weaknesses before the depression struck. This type of shelter would have been seen mostly in New York, Chicago or Denver but were common in places all over the country. Police were ordered to tear down the shacks, but still the less-fortunate people continued this style of living.

Hoovervilles remain important today by giving us insight on the lifestyle of common people in the 1930s. Culture and Society in the Great Depression on Encyclopedia Britannica Online states that Hoovervilles, along with rural poverty and shuttered factories, will always be images that come to mind of this time era. Poverty is reflected throughout this topic which makes it really highlight the obstacles Americans were facing. During this recession, people used whatever resources they could get their hands on to meet their needs. In To Kill a Mockingbird, Hoovervilles are used to give a hint as to what the setting of the novel is. Because Hoovervilles were popular during the Great Depression, when the novel refers to these improvised shelters you know the setting is in the 1930s.

Katie D, Period 1

Anonymous said...

According to Britannica Online School Edition Pulitzer Prize is a tradition that started in the 1917. Every year Columbia University, In New York City would make prizes to give to citizens that were approved by the Pulitzer Prize board, for doing public services, and also achievement in American journalism, letters, and music. The man who started the idea of Pulitzer Prizes is Joseph Pulitzer. According to Britannica Online School Edition at first the prizes were 500,000 dollars from the newspaper. The prizes are still given out till today but more people receive them 14 prizes are handed out to journalist, 6 prizes in letters, 1 prize in music, and 4 in fellowship.
In the novel To Kill A Mocking Bird reminds me of the knothole that the children always find gifts in on their way home from school. Even though the gifts in the book are not as expensive it still reminds me of Pulitzer Prize. The reason why it reminds me of this is because both of the gifts are picked out for certain people. This is why the knothole in the tree reminds me of Pulitzer Prizes.
Khari.D Period 1

Anonymous said...

Great Depression
According to an article under American History at ABC-CLIO, on October 29, 1929 the New York Stock Exchange had crashed and was only a symptom rather than a cause of the great depression. The article also states that the depression resulted in overextension in credit and spending through the 1920s .Nonetheless, the stock market crashed which shuck the United States confidence. The crash brought loans the United States had extended to European Countries, Which were still recovering from World War I. Soon Latin American and Asian countries, organized around primary products to the industrial market of the North Atlantic world, quickly collapsed in response to their markets. According article under American Government at ABC-CLIO, the great depression was the most dramatic economic event in United States history. During the 12 years of the depression in the United States, one –quarter of the work force was unemployed, 5,500 banks closed, and 32,000 businesses went bankrupt.
The United States government created a system called the “New Deal” which is a series of programs which will keep the country stable. This topic is still huge because the United States is in War and are in dept in this era. The topic is important to the book because scout, always talks about where people in her neighborhood are in class.
Dante M, Period 1

Anonymous said...

Stock Market Crash of 1929-
Just six months after Herbert Hoover’s inauguration in the late 1920’s, the stock market was the United States’ main economy. Americans all around the United States had something to do or something to say about it. When rumors broke out about its success, people rushed to brokers and began investing, hoping to come out millionaires.

Suddenly stock prices began to reach high levels and this time period became a time of wealth and opportunity. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, ‘Stock Market Crash of 1929,’ “The prices of stocks soared to fantastic heights in the great “Hoover bull market,” and the public, from banking and industrial magnates to chauffeurs and cooks, rushed to brokers to invest their surplus or their savings in securities, which they could sell at a profit. Billions of dollars were drawn from the banks into Wall Street for brokers' loans to carry margin accounts”. Panic started taking over once the market began to close by 12.8%. This meant people’s stocks decreased in value. Businesses soon started shutting down since no profit was being made.

Soon enough all this excitement washed away when real estate value declined. All of these negative factors led to the Great Depression. People’s spirits turned grim and for the next ten years, Americans had to continue to live their lives day by day, not knowing if they would have the money and resources to care for their families. Looking back we see how this time period of struggle and desperation has affected us into becoming stronger Americans. We learned from our ancestors difficulties and we look up to the way they overcame those troubles. Now, we take what we’ve learned from the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and work hard to never have to experience that again. When referring to the crash, EBSCO (The Nation magazine) says “Another total collapse like the one in the 1930s may still be avoided if politics changes direction”. Clearly this dark time made us now into who we are today, which is more innovated and knowledgeable as citizens of this country.

This event relates to the time period in which the “To Kill a Mockingbird” setting took place. After taking all of these factors into consideration, a new sense of sympathy is created for Scout and all of Maycomb County. The inhabitants of this small town have nothing more to lose and rely on each other for everything. A family atmosphere is then created and people help each other out in overcoming this great stress.

Maria S, Period 1.

Anonymous said...

George Wallace
According to ABC-CLIO in the history section George Wallace was the governor for a long period of time before being shot by a spectator when he was later re-elected. ABC-CLIO in the history section states that Bob Wallace tried running for president several times but never won. ABC-CLIO states that George Wallace was born on was born on August 25, 1919 in Clio, Alabama. He remained there to become the governor of Alabama for the first time in 1962. Also stated by this source, George Wallace ran for governor for 4 different terms but retired from politics in 1987 due to complications from his gunshot wounds. According to EBSCO a good reason for George Wallace still being remembered today is for how hard he worked to make Alabama's economy better. He is also remembered for being so into segregation, and for the cruel statement "Segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever. A theme related in this topic could be racism because although George Wallace tried to convince people he wasn't racist he was highly involved in trying to separate black people from white people and not letting black people apply to certain colleges. This relates to the book "To Kill a Mocking Bird" because it shows the racism and segregation going on in that time period.

George M. period 1

Anonymous said...

- THE ROSEWOOD MASSACRE -

According to ABC Clio’s American History Burning of Rosewood article, the Rosewood Massacre took place in early 1923, predominantly African-American town of Rosewood, Florida was burned by a racist whites after killing at least eight black residents. Racial disturbances were common during the early 20th century in the United States, reflecting the nation’s rapid social changes. Individual racial incidents led to serious violence after a white woman in nearby Sumner had been beaten and possibly raped by a black man. Bloodhounds on the assailant’s trail led a group of whites to Rosewood and burned almost every structure in Rosewood. The town was abandoned by black residents during the attacks. None ever returned. In 1994, the state legislature set up a college fund for all Rosewood descendants and gave each living survivor $150,000.

Anonymous said...

- THE ROSEWOOD MASSACRE -

According to ABC Clio’s American History Burning of Rosewood article, the Rosewood Massacre took place in early 1923, predominantly African-American town of Rosewood, Florida was burned by a racist whites after killing at least eight black residents. Racial disturbances were common during the early 20th century in the United States, reflecting the nation’s rapid social changes. Individual racial incidents led to serious violence after a white woman in nearby Sumner had been beaten and possibly raped by a black man. Bloodhounds on the assailant’s trail led a group of whites to Rosewood and burned almost every structure in Rosewood. The town was abandoned by black residents during the attacks. None ever returned. In 1994, the state legislature set up a college fund for all Rosewood descendants and gave each living survivor $150,000.

Hyeyun J, period 1

Anonymous said...

According to American History section from ABC-CLIO. The Women’s Suffrage Movement was women trying to secure their voting rights and then to broaden their impact on the government. In July 1848, more than 300 women gathered at Seneca Falls, New York to initiate the women’s suffrage movement.

For the next 70 years, the leaders of the women’s suffrage movement worked hard to impress men and women of the importance of women having the right to vote in means of protecting domestic life and society in the form of the dangerous world. But, because of abolition, it was actually not till after the Civil War where reformers were able to pay attention to women’s suffrage.


According to EBSCO.com. The major tide in this was when in 1917 when men were off fighting in World War 1, women had to take the men’s daily jobs to keep the war moving. When the war finally ended in 1918, the women’s suffrage movement gained hundreds of thousands of supporters, mainly for two reasons.

One was that women had proved that they were able to take in businesses and industries more than the man had suspected. Two, people believed if women had gained the right to vote, they would use this power so never again they would have to fight in a bloody aged war, also that few women would sanction their husbands and sons for any cause. And finally after more than 50 years of fighting for their cause, in 1919 the 19th Amendment passes where women were finally able to vote.
Jonathan S. Period 1

Anonymous said...

Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States and was the only president ever to serve more than two terms. According to ABC-CLIO U.S. History, he was the architect of the U.S. welfare state and established government responsibility for individual social welfare. He had a very big and long lasting impact. After being hit with polio, it caused Roosevelt to become almost completely paralyzed, and put his career in great jeopardy. Roosevelt stuck through it and success came to him. He was elected president in the time of the Great Depression and promised that he would try his very best to end the depression. At the end of his first term he came up with the New Deal which relieved most but not all of the suffering. Because of this he was re-elected. According to Encyclopedia Britannica (High school Edition) he made a successful effort to rid the world of German National Socialism and Japanese militarism.Roosevelt made a lasting impact on the United States by leading the nation through two huge crises’s and alleviated the massive suffering of the Great Depression, while also allying in World War ll.

Jordan Trammell, Period 1

Anonymous said...

According to EBSCO, Points of View Reference Center, “The novel “To Kill a Mockingbird”, was a revelation because it read like a true slice of Southern life in the 1930s, severed by a true daughter of the South.”

During the 1930s a major designer was Claire McCardell, she designed clothes of comfortable ready-to-wear, flexible, easy fit clothes at affordable prices. Claire was born on May 24, 1905 in Fredrick, Maryland. She attended the New York School of Fine and Applied Arts to pursue her dream of becoming a designer. After Claire graduated in 1928 she became a model, and sketch artist until she met Robert Turk, who then took her to New York City in 1932 and she became the head designer, by her hard work.

Later in the 19th century and in the early 20th centuries Claire McCardell remains important because she made several of designs fit for men and women in sportswear and evening wear. These designs have become a daily trend and look of society that represents the American fashion today. According to EBSCO Points of View Claire stated, “I do not like glitter… I like comfort in the rain, in the sun; comfort for active sports, comfort for sitting still and looking pretty. Clothes should be useful.”

Some of our casual, comfortable sportswear that is suitable in weather conditions and multiple sports today came from Claire. Also her designs of the five-piece “separate”, “body suit”, evening wear made out of cotton, “popover”, and harem pajamas follow us to this day.

Claire’s fashions in the 1930s relate to the fashion in the novel “To Kill a Mockingbird”, because Scout and Jem like to wear comfortable loose athletic clothes they can run around in and have fun in.

Claire McCardell wrote a book called “What shall I Wear?” in 1956. According to ABC-CLIO under American History, “she stated the guiding spirit behind her designs: "for me it’s America—it looks and feels like America. It's freedom, its democracy, its casualness, its good health. Clothes can say all that." Claire made a statement that she wanted her clothes to reflect the American way of life in the 1930s.

Carley S, Period 1.

Anonymous said...

Civil Rights Act of 1957
The Civil Rights Act of 1957 was made a part of our law by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. It was signed into law on September 9, 1957. Before this act was passed, “Race was a central national concern for the first time since Reconstruction,” said on Britannica Online’s High School edition of the Civil Rights Movement. To fix this problem, the Civil Rights Act of 1957 was created. According to the Civil Rights Act (1957) on ABC-CLIO under American Government, “The Civil Rights Act of 1957 allowed the six-members of U.S. Civil Rights Commission to investigate allegations that African Americans weren’t allowed to vote in the United States. The act was passed because African Americans were harshly being harassed, in the South in particular, by people who were not of the state officials and whom could not be prosecuted under existing federal civil rights statuses.” With this said, the Civil Rights Act of 1957 made it illegal to act against the voting rights of African American by state action.

The Civil Rights Act of 1957 still remains important today due to the type of world we live in. There are people of all races that live among us and African Americans should always have the right to vote in the United States without being harassed by anyone. The effect of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 is that no person is allowed to legally act against African American’s voting rights under state law. This topic leads towards an ending theme of racism in voting and a sense of assurance to those who were once affected before this act was passed.

In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, there is a relation to the Civil Rights Act of 1957. As the summary says on the back of the book cover, this novel deals with the main characters facing problems with segregation as the Civil Rights issues are heating up. Even though I personally haven’t read about the Civil Rights Act of 1957 in this novel yet, I’m sure there is information about it to come soon. My prediction is that Atticus will have to deal with a case on an African American whose voting rights are abused.

Sarah Stubbs, Period 1.

Anonymous said...

According to the “Chamber of Commerce of West Alabama” president, GEORGE A. LAMAISTRE in the 1950s, The University of Alabama Riot, 1956 were the violent protests of the white citizens of the nearby community due to the first admission of a black student, Autherine J. Lucy. Because of the decision made by the supreme court of outlawing school segregation in 1954, according to ABC Clio’s American History “A National Upheaval 1954~1975”, many people in the South were hostile to any African Americans admitted to schools. And now, Lucy’s admission as a first Negro to be accepted by the University of Alabama set the white community enraged.
According to the “Chamber of Commerce of West Alabama” president, GEORGE A. LAMAISTRE again, the few days of Lucy’s stay at the University was horrifying as a fellow human being. It was not long after Lucy’s first class on February 3rd, 1956, according to the University of Alabama official webpage “Brief history of UA”, when mobs of community citizens invaded the University campus. Continuous cries of “KEEP TUSCALOOSA WHITE!” echoed through the campus, as the mob burned the cross, harassed the University of Alabama’s president, O. Carmicheal. After a day, the angry mob numbered up to 1,000 people by 11’o clock, forcing Lucy to flee in her car for her life across the campus. Even worse, the mob also threw eggs and rocks at President Carmicheal, violently disapproving the Negro student after Lucy was taken to her home.
Soon after the outrageous riot, Autherine Lucy was suspended from the school “for her protection” after only 3 days of attending the school, calming the mob. Although there were court cases regarding the riot were held, it was clear that the white society was not ready to accept a negro attending the University. The significance of the riot was not only the temporary peace onto the University by Lucy’s removal, but the beginning spark of the African American resistance toward racism. The Riot may have not been a major event in society, but was a start towards more violent battles against the white society and the African Americans. What would have happened if the riot hadn’t happened and there were no resistance? The riot and other struggles toward freedom are what shaped our schools and society today.
- Nick K, Period 1

Anonymous said...

According to ABC-CLIO, The movement for women rights and concerns (Feminist Movement)was perhaps most advanced in English-speaking countries. In the United States, Elizabeth C.Stanton and Susan B. Anthony organized the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. The convention, and its resulting Declaration of Sentiments (1848), marked the organized beginning of the feminist movement in the United States. U.S. feminists became an important element in the antislavery movement before and during the American Civil War. They worked for an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that extended suffrage to African-American men but were disappointed when women were not also granted the right to vote. As a result, Stanton and Anthony founded the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1869. Socialist feminism was especially strong in the United States at the turn of the 20th century, and women like Jane Addams were pioneers in the settlement house movement. In 1911, Charlotte Perkins Gilman made the argument that women needed to be economically independent of men in The Man-Made World. The first wave of American feminism culminated in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which granted U.S. women the right to vote in 1920.

It is important to history that the feminist movement was passed because it plays a huge role in today's history. Without the movement, Women wouldn't be aloud to do things that they can do now or that men had the right to back then. For example:equal work, equal pay and women were aloud to vote.

According to EBSCOHOST.COM, Susan B.Anthony (1820–1906) was an American reformer and leader of the woman suffrage movement. She organized the first woman's temperance association, the Daughters of Temperance. At a temperance meeting in 1851 she met Elizabeth C.Stanton, and from that time until Stanton's death in 1902 they were associated as the leaders of the woman's movement in the United States and were bound by a warm personal friendship.

-Kaitlin O,Per.1

Darya said...

Educttion in 1930s (PART 1 of 2)

Education throughout America has changed dramatically over the past fifty years. Education innovators such as John Dewey, Edward Lee Thorndike, and William Kilpatrick greatly influenced the teaching methods of educators around the U.S, especially in the South. According to Ideas and Movements: Education on abc-clio.com, the methods produced by these various men, such as the Dewey Decimal System, greatly impacted the learning process in schools during the 1920s and 1930s. In 1929, the U.S. stock market crashed and education in the 1930s was also greatly affected by the economic depression that followed. Money to fund schools for materials and pay checks for teachers failed to be raised, in result, degrading the educational opportunity for children from elementary schools to even colleges. The whole United States was greatly affected by the degraded education. During the 1930s the so called “advancing educational society” in the U.S went down hill and the new Dewey Decimal System seemed to be useless in the time of great economic depression. Even through all the educational innovations, such as the input of manual and creative arts in the 1930s as well as new advanced teaching techniques, the department of education in the United States was unable to strive to its fullest during the slump in the economy.

Throughout American history, education has been the peak of its concerns and today still is. Advances in technology and innovations have always affected educational aspects in the U.S. in one way or another. The history of education has been looked back at and reflected on in comparison to education in the present. Even after eighty years, the educational depression that occurred during the 1930s is reflected on today. Teaching styles established then are even used today. According to Encyclopedia Britannica Online: Education, John Dewey established a teaching and learning style in which he explained, “Shape the experiences of the young so that instead of reproducing current habits, better habits shall be formed, and thus the future adult society be an improvement on their own.”

Many professional educators ask today what effect does the educational slump in the 1930s have on the U.S today? Many would say, “This happened in the 1930s, so it has no relevance to the advanced educational institutions today.” This misconception is looked at to broadly and not to its core. According to the Education War on abc-clio.com, “The position of the U.S could be much further today if the chain reaction of the depression in the 1930s on education hadn’t occurred.” If the economic crash hadn’t occurred in the 1930s, the progress of the U.S education department could have been five or six years ahead of what it is today.

Darya Molavi, Period 1

Darya said...

Education in 1930s (PART 2 of 2)

Although the education in the 1930s was a time of low educational activity, there were its up-sides. During the 1930s, there was actually a trend in innovations in education. The Dewey Decimal System, introduced by John Dewey, was created and education was taken to a new level. Children could learn to work as independent mind and express their ideas in new ways. Even through the new teaching methods and styles, the lack of money to support the education system of the U.S interfered with the trend in education innovations and caused the education to go from possibly “good” to “bad”.

The education in the 1930s relates to the novel To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee. The time period in the novel occurred greatly in the 1930s and Scout’s problems with methods of education in her school were a problem. She went to school to be told by teachers she had to be taught one way and learned one way only. The way educators in the 1930s taught was by implying that the way that you should learn things should only be done in the way the school teaches you. The education methods that were used in the 1930s relate to the book in the fact that Scout has a problem with the way she learns and school and causes a conflict in the story.
In the book going to school and learning created a problem for Scout because she could only learn under certain restrictions, due to the Educational Methods in the 1930s.

Darya Molavi, Period 1